Not currently, however, you can do something that gets you close:
Combine the Syphon QC Plugin with the CoGeWebKit plugin, which allows you to get images out of a WebKit instance, browse like normal, but manipulate the frames in Quartz Composer. You’d take the image out, to a Syphon Server’s image input port.
Alternatively, if you use VDMX, you can use a Web based media browser item and run the web in there, and use VDMX’s Syphon out.
Do you need Chrome specifically?